(Visited 66 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Here’s a list of news reports about stem cells for those interested in either health or bioethics.Stem cell research continues to promise amazing treatments, yet the use of human embryos is ethically troublesome. Adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) offer ethical workarounds for embryonic stem cells in most cases. Here’s what’s developing on the stem cell front.Researchers take broad look at stem cells (Science Daily). “Sanford Research scientists recently published a review article in an issue of Stem Cells Translational Medicine focused on the study of and utility of adult-derived stem cells.” A new clinical trial opened for patients with rotator-cuff tears, using their own stem cells.Clonal reversal of ageing-associated stem cell lineage bias via a pluripotent intermediate (Nature Scientific Reports). This study looks at the potential for reversing aging with iPSCs treated to heal hematopoietic stem cells in the blood.The stem cell dynamics of wound healing (Medical Xpress). Researchers in Brussels are using mouse models to study how the body’s stem cells work to repair tissues in the skin. The research has been published in Nature Communications. See also Science Daily.Autophagy maintains the metabolism and function of young and old stem cells (Nature). How does the body keep its stem cells healthy over a lifetime? “Our results demonstrate that autophagy actively suppresses haematopoietic stem-cell metabolism by clearing active, healthy mitochondria to maintain quiescence and stemness, and becomes increasingly necessary with age to preserve the regenerative capacity of old haematopoietic stem cells.”Stem cells derived neuronal networks grown on a chip as an alternative to animal testing (Science Daily). Scientists at the University of Bern are experimenting with stem cells assays in “multi-electrode arrays capable of detecting the biological activity of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins.” This method “could serve in minimizing animal experiments as well as provide a physiological relevant platform for drug-screening of neuroactive compounds.”Findings reveal effect of embryonic neural stem cell development on later nerve regeneration capacity (Medical Xpress).The cells responsible for neurogenesis in the mature brain are called adult neural stem cells, but little is known about their developmental origins. Now an international research collaboration led by Magdalena Götz, Professor of Physiological Genomics at LMU’s Biomedical Center and Director of the Institute for Stem Cell Research at the Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, has demonstrated that the mode of division of stem cells has a profound influence on the numbers of adult neural stem cells formed during embryonic development.Scientists wage fight against aging bone marrow stem cell niche (Science Daily). Scientists at Cincinnati Hospital are also looking at hematopoietic stem cells and how they age. Trouble is, the bone marrow also ages with the HSCs. These scientists “propose rejuvenating the bone marrow niche where HSCs are created.”DNA repair and replication links to pluripotency and differentiation capacity of pig iPS cells (PLoS One). This paper looks into whether iPSCs derived from pig cells are stable enough to be used in human treatments.Bioethics and Genome EditingScientists create artificial mouse ’embryo’ from stem cells for first time (Science Daily). Studying how mouse embryos develop is OK, but if mad scientists start creating human embryos from stem cells some day, it won’t matter if they came from adult stem cells or iPSCs. It will still be morally wrong. These scientists are looking for workarounds to the shortage of human embryos to play with, and the 13-day rule for destroying them.Bioethics: Democracy in vitro (Nature). In this Book Review, “Insoo Hyun weighs up a treatise exploring the ethical deliberations surrounding embryo research.” The book is Experiments in Democracy: Human Embryo Research and the Politics of Bioethics, by J. Benjamin Hurlbut (Columbia University Press: 2017).US science advisers outline path to genetically modified babies (Nature). This related bioethics story should sound alarms. “Modified human embryos should be allowed if researchers meet strict criteria, says long-awaited National Academies report.”Safe and ethical ways to edit the human genome (The Conversation). Rosa Castro gives 10 guidelines for avoiding the ethical qualms about a brave new world of “designer babies.”First results of CRISPR gene editing of normal embryos released (New Scientist). It’s coming. The Chinese have already started. Is the world ready for direct editing of the human genome? Can ethics keep up with the technology? This liberal news service doesn’t seem overly concerned about it. It’s a way to cure deadly genetic diseases; isn’t that a moral thing? It always starts out that way, but eugenics waits in the wings. What happens to those born with the genetic disease? How will they be treated? Read about other issues, such as “mosaicism” – editing that doesn’t fix all the bugs.
6 December 2011The European Investment Bank (EIB) is to provide €35-million (R385-million) in long-term funding to South African water board Umgeni Water, enabling it to continue providing clean water to about five-million people in Durban and surrounding areas, as well as to provide new water connections to unserved areas.The projects are part of Umgeni Water’s capital expenditure infrastructure programme, and will also involve the installation of new bulk water pipelines and expansion of water treatment plants, pumping stations and service reservoirs.The initiative will involve upgrading water supply networks and treatment facilities to enable increased provision of water.“The Umgeni Water projects will assure and improve access to water for over a million households across KwaZulu-Natal,” EIB vice-president Plutarchos Sakellaris said in a statement this week.“At a time when the world’s leaders are gathering in Durban to address the challenges posed by a changing climate, acknowledging the importance of ensuring the availability of clean water in dry regions is essential.”First loan to a water boardThe granting of the loan to Umgeni Water is historic, as it is the first loan to be made to a South African water board by the EIB.“The European Investment Bank has an in-depth understanding of the pressing service delivery needs of our country and the importance of ensuring water supply in the region,” said Umgeni Water GM Nica Gevers. “We are delighted that the negotiations have been successfully concluded, which will now enable us to move ahead with the projects with vigour.”The loan will complement the financial support provided to the Trans-Caledon Tunnel Authority and funding for the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality (Greater Durban) for the construction of the Spring Grove Dam and the replacement of water mains and installation of new pipelines in the eThekwini region.Investment in African water projectsThe EIB is working with key partners across South Africa to enable increased investment across the country’s entire water system and contributed towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the country.Previous South African water projects funded by the European Investment Bank include the Berg Water dam supplying Cape Town, Vaal Dam reservoir and pipeline supplying Johannesburg and the South African component of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project.Since 2000, the EIB has provided over €531-million of funding for water projects across in Africa. In southern Africa this has included projects in Lesotho, Mozambique, Tanzania, Swaziland, Botswana and South Africa.SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material
2 March 2015Construction of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a strategic infrastructure project that is being overseen by the Presidential Infrastructure Co-ordinating Committee. And it is anticipated that this will lead to new innovations in manufacturing and construction, according to Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa“The SKA forms part of efforts to transform South Africa’s economy through human capital development, innovation, value addition, industrialisation and entrepreneurship,” he said, speaking at the SKA site in Carnarvon in the Northern Cape on 28 February.He said the project would create jobs not only during the next decade or so of construction, but also for the next 50 years of operation and maintenance. “The SKA project, which is aligned with the African Union’s 10-year Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Africa, will help to drive human capital development on the continent. It will contribute to Africa’s efforts to build innovation-led, knowledge- based economies.”This was part of efforts that sought to harness science, technology and innovation to advance the continent’s developmental goals. The SKA is a global science and engineering project to build the world’s largest radio telescope, and Ramaphosa said it would collect and process vast amounts of data, which would require and encourage significant advances in high-performance computing.“Producing the thousands of dishes required for the SKA will demand an entirely new way of building highly sophisticated and sensitive scientific instruments.”Youth developmentThe 699 students and postdoctoral fellows who had been supported through the SKA South Africa bursary and fellowship programme were at the forefront of leading the project, said Ramaphosa.It was developing technical and artisan skills while producing a new cohort of young scientists. “Scientists are not born. They are made. They are the products of a society that values knowledge, promotes learning and rewards innovation. They are products of a society that reads, of schools that work and parents [who] are engaged in the intellectual development of their children.“We need universities that have the academic capacity and financial resources to conduct ground-breaking research, companies that are prepared to dedicate resources to research and development, understanding that sustained profitability depends on innovative products and evolving ways of working, schools that have libraries, and schools that have capable and enthusiastic teachers of maths, science and language,” he said.National Development PlanScience and technology could do much in the fight against poverty, unemployment and inequality, he said, adding that the National Development Plan (NDP) highlighted the vital role played by science, technology and innovation in national development and equitable growth.“Throughout human history, technological progress has fuelled economic and social development. From agriculture to commerce, from health care to communications, from manufacturing to education, technology has transformed the human experience.”While the first phase of the SKA would be situated in South Africa and Australia, 11 countries were participating as members of the SKA Organisation. “Around 100 organisations from about 20 countries have been participating in the design and development of the SKA. It is particularly significant that eight other African countries will be involved in hosting the second phase of the project. This promises to establish Africa as a hub for expanding scientific inquiry.”He said the SKA would be a revolutionary new radio telescope, a highly flexible instrument designed to address fundamental questions in astrophysics, fundamental physics, cosmology, particle astrophysics and astrobiology.“Through the SKA we will be able to probe the cosmic Dark Ages and previously unexplored parts of the distant universe. We will use it to search for planets and black holes, and examine galaxy evolution, cosmology and dark energy, in search of answers to fundamental questions about our origins and how the universe works.”The government commended, encouraged and supported partnerships between the SKA Project Office and the private sector that were transforming the lives of people in the Northern Cape.“We are witnesses to human capital development through a bursary programme for learners in the surrounding areas of Williston, Brandvlei, Van Wyksvlei and Carnarvon,” Ramaphosa said, encouraging people to work together to expand knowledge and apply what was discovered to improve the condition of all life on Earth.“Let us work together to explore the history of our universe and, in doing so, secure our common future.”Source: SAnews.gov
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“The soldier is the Army. No army is better than its soldiers. The Soldier is also a citizen. In fact, the highest obligation and privilege of citizenship is that of bearing arms for one’s country.” – George S. Patton Jr.The Indian navy:The Indian Navy is a well-balanced and cohesive three dimensional force, capable of operating above, on and under surface of the oceans efficiently safeguarding our national interests.Indian Navy officer- career:An officer at a very young age assumes the responsibility of commanding his men and use of latest equipment on the ships, submarines or even air-crafts. Working in the latest technology environment, the young officers are exposed to the very best in their field of operations.The cutting-edge technology and revolution in military affairs makes the career very challenging in the Indian Navy. It is the only service that operates regularly with the other navies of the world. This not only helps in professional expertise of an individual but provides opportunities to exhibit our talent with pride all across the world. Men in white command dignity and respect and are always in high spirits as the service offers personal, financial, emotional security and status in the society.Skills required: Adaptability to all aspects of lifeCourageLeadership skillsAbility to sacrificeStrong headedMasculine builtIndependentSocialDisciplinedPlacid and patientDeterminationFighting spiritClarity of thoughtExpressionResolveGroomedAware and knowledgeable about all technicalitiesApplication criteria:To join Indian Navy, apply in NDA exam held by the UPSC twice every year.If you are in 10+2, you can apply for NDA exam.Note that only unmarried male candidates are eligible to apply for NDA exam and you must have aged between 16.5 and 19.For qualifying this exam, you will have to pass three stages:Written ExamSSB InterviewMedical TestIf you have completed your graduation, then you can apply for CDS exam held by UPSC twice a year.advertisementCommands:The Navy has the following three commands, each under the control of a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief:The Western Naval Command (Headquarters at Mumbai)The Eastern Naval Command (Headquarters at Visakhapatnam)The Southern Naval Command (Headquarters at Kochi)Careers:Executive Branch:As an officer of the Executive Branch, one can exercise command of ships, submarines and aircraft. Executive officers can specialise in the following:Gunnery & MissilesNavigation and DirectionAnti-Submarine WarfareCommunicationsPilotObserverSubmarineHydrographyDivingEngineering Branch:Modern ships, submarines and aircraft are fitted with advanced technology machinery and propulsion systems. As an engineer officer, you will be responsible for keeping all these hi-tech systems serviceable. Opportunities exist to work in gigantic naval dockyards and indigenous production units. In no other career is an engineer exposed to such a wide spectrum of opportunities and to keep abreast of modern developments. An engineer officer’s career is interspersed with technical courses up to post-graduation level in India/abroad.Electrical Branch:In addition, complex missile systems, underwater weapons, radar and radio communication equipment form major part of a warship’s equipment. A majority of these are either computer-based or computer aided and incorporate the latest trends in electronics engineering. For a ship to be able to fight effectively, all these equipment must be kept working at peak efficiency. Electrical Officers have this responsibility and other challenging tasks. To sharpen their skills, the Navy offers excellent opportunities for post-graduate courses in India/abroad to deserving candidatesEducation Branch:Any service will be as good as the training its officers and men receive. As an Education Officer you will play a major role in the training of naval officers/sailors. Education Officers are responsible for scientific and methodical instructions, including theoretical aspects of technical subjects of all branches of the navy and also for general education. An Education Officer can specialise in almost all specialisations of the Executive Branch.Where to study?Officer’s recruitment is advertised through the Employment News and all important national and regional newspapers/dailies. Selection for Permanent Commission through 10+2 NDA/Indian Naval Academy cadet entry and CDSE (Graduate) entry is through a written examination conducted by the UPSC followed by an interview by the Service Selection Board (SSB).For all other Permanent Commission entries and Short Service Commission entries there is no written examination. These applications are shortlisted as per the criteria laid down by the Naval Headquarters, Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment. Selection is through merit alone.Cultural integration:India is a large country with diverse religion, culture, tradition and values. The Navy draws its immensely talented personnel from communities of all kinds from all across the country. In the Navy we have an ethos of equality and therefore men from different background and diverse culture who join the Navy are brought together without showing any bias to a particular person or group. The Indian Navy is resolutely committed to ensuring that all personnel are treated equally and equal opportunities are provided at work and training. The advancement in the career is based solely on individual merits and ability.advertisementPay:The pay of a Navy Officer depends entirely on the department he is working in and for whom. Also, gradually, as years pass by the serving officer’s pay increases with the ranks he upgrades to. When the officer decides to leave the service (after 20 years of serving the INF) he/she gets a pension plan which increases as an when the pay commissions increase. Benefits/perks: Free health and medical facilities for officer and familyMess, clubs, sports facilities at extremely cheap ratesFurnished government accommodation at best locationsPension with all benefits60 days of annual leave20 days of casual leaveLeave encashment up to 300 daysFree rationScope:Career scope in the Indian Navy is not only very high but the job is an extremely adventurous one! It is extremely easy to qualify through INF provided you are someone who physically and mentally unbeatable. A highly reputed job with numerous advantages. What more could one ask for.